Jewish, Christian, Chewish, or Eschewish:
Interfaith Marriage Pathways for the New Millennium
by Reeve Robert Brenner


A Friendly Copyright Notice
© 2007 Reeve Robert Brenner All rights reserved

Even though most copyright notices say all kinds of mean things about not reproducing the book in any form, I not only wouldn't mind if you copy parts of this book, I would be thrilled if you do. All I ask is that you tell people where this material came from and who is the author. If you want copies of the entire book, it's easier and probably cheaper to buy nice pretty printed originals from our website. Thanks!



 My job description as rabbi, regardless of where I serve, whether in the military, the classroom, an institution, hospital, clinical center or a  community congregation, is kiruv (“Outreach”) or l'karev otam (“to bring them closer”). The term derives from the same Hebrew root-word as “sacrifice” whose intention was to draw nearer to God. This means that by downreaching ever deeper into Torah, that is, Judaism, I am to make every effort to determine the best way to draw any person professing Jewish identity further into his or her Jewishness. My calling is to try to enrich that person’s life by immersion in the ancient and surpassingly contemporary Jewish cultural heritage. For Jews a heritage unfolds, intensifies and deepens over a lifetime; it is not acquired in a sudden jolt of epiphany.

Strengthening spirituality and practices (mitzvot), reaching out to those in existential need and supporting those seeking to intensify their engagement in Jewish life are among the ways kiruv may be furthered.  Kiruv also requires applying Torah values to gain access to the deepest part of our selves; to come upon and uncover, or recover, that vital and fundamental primal point of balance on which to establish a coherent way of life.  Serving as chaplain in the military or in a hospital clinical center, whether ministering to Jews or non-Jews, in keeping faith with the responsibilities of rabbinical ordination, I am duty bound to help whoever turns to me find an open channel to their souls that they may become increasingly more conscious of a Higher Consciousness and their sense of their better selves by which to make judgments and decisions in order to sort things out and determine the best way forward.

Although Jews do not proselytize, I am also charged with representing and teaching Torah /Judaism to Christians, Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists and other non-Jews who are motivated to become better informed. I am to do my best to nourish that desire. Exercising my best judgments, I am mandated to do all that I can, governed and guided by an age-old tradition and shaped by the requirements of our time, to undertake and pursue the multi-dimensional mission of explaining and transmitting Judaism, as I understand that heritage and its teachings, to others. All others: Jews and non-Jews. Understanding one another may, in some instances, lead to greater respect for one another. Also, choices among competing options that the hand of life deals us are often re-evaluated and at times re-considered when new information has been capably and authoritatively communicated. Rabbis must be able to convey information (and to correct misinformation) that others may enlarge their comprehension, better appreciate and put to use the knowledge they have gained.

Rabbis are above all else teachers who instruct in accordance with their understanding of Torah Wisdom. Torah is a “cool medium” allowing and encouraging a rich variety of interpretations by rabbis, scholars and educated laymen that take into account the needs of real people with whom we live in these critical first few years of 21st century United States of America.

Presiding over a congregation as rabbi, I am assigned the responsibility of welcoming any Jew to our house of prayer, assembly and study. And I am obliged to extend that warm reception to all others as well who seek understanding of the Jewish heritage. How to define who is and who is not a Jew, how to recognize the boundary markers that distinguish Jews from other peoples and Jewishness from other identities will be addressed in these pages, as the title of this chapter suggests.

We also swing and keep the door of the house wide open to anyone identified as a “ger toshav,” a Settled Sojourner, that is, a non-Jew whose status is different than other non-Jews in the Jewish perception. The Settled Sojourner resides, or plans to reside, in a Jewish household. He or she has become, or one day may become, a parent raising Jewish children and, therefore, an “extension of the folk.”

Settled Sojourners, as we shall soon see, are constituents of an altogether distinct and profoundly unique classification. They require very special attention for reasons spelled out and justified in these pages. For a Settled Sojourner there has been a convergence with, rather than a conversion to, the people. We’ll have much more to say about the differences between convergence and conversion further on in chapter eight. Demographics disclose that one out of five residents of self-reported American Jewish households are Gentiles. Most of them have “converged” as Settled Sojourners essentially saying by words and acts of commitment that they have decided to “get with the program” and participate in conducting a Jewish lifestyle among self-identifying Jewish loved ones.

        Both conversion and convergence conduce to confluence. Confluence is taken to mean a merger of minds partnering conjointly in the flow of Jewish continuity by the way they as a family have proceeded along their life’s journey. Of the four directions, Jewish, Christian, Chewish and Eschewish, they have chosen the Jewish pathway however bestrewn with obstacles and snagged with thickets it may turn out to be and however its course may wind.


             When we think of the history of Western Civilization, the image of a tree works well to convey what has occurred. The soil, the roots, the trunk of the tree are Jewish (and to a large extent also Greek). Christianity, Islam and many other faiths, including, in certain respects, the modern varieties of Judaism, are like lateral limbs emerging from the trunk of the tree. In accordance with this metaphor, Christianity is a Jewish religion; Judaism is not a Christian religion. The same, in many respects, can be said of Islam. The religious traditions of more than half the population of our planet derive from Judaism. Judaism may therefore be regarded as a common spiritual denominator.

        Branches emerge from the trunk not the other way around. The Settled Sojourner may be thought of as having transitioned or re-positioned (rather than “having come down”) from one of the many limbs to the supporting parent stem of the tree, Judaism, the cultural heritage shared by Jews, Christians and Muslims. The out-branching limbs converge at the ascending spinal column of the trunk, the image suggests; that is where Jews and non-Jews in our part of the world meet. As will be explored more fully below, in a chapter devoted to the process, convergence occurs when a non-Jew makes a decision to throw in with Jewish loved ones, to participate in a Jewish household and to self-declare as a Settled Sojourner.


        Most Reform and Reconstructionist congregations would experience no ambivalence or uncertainty enrolling in their religious school any self declared Jewish youngster whether of a Jewish mother or father. Even a non-Jewish child would be welcome in many Jewish supplementary religious schools although this rarely occurs. The point being made is that the synagogue is an open institution. The doors are not closed to anyone who sincerely desires to be there for the personality, convictions and character of the congregation - that is, for what the congregation stands, for what it offers the general community or for the principles, philosophy and ideology it represents in its commitment to Jewish schooling, continuity and renewal.

A synagogue is primarily a teaching (Torah) institution whose members and friends also come together to observe celebrations and commemorations that have emerged from a shared history, a set of responsibilities (known as mitzvot), commitments and values. There is therefore always an awareness of an underlining assumption that Jews congregate to learn, commemorate and affirm solidarity. A Jewish congregation is deeply committed to strengthening Jewish identity, values and spiritual growth – however understood - while enriching the vocabulary and life experiences of its congregants. With this understood, among other matters connected to the practical requirements of maintaining an institution to be sure, everyone, including the Settled Sojourners and their non-Jewish family and friends, are welcome to attend and to participate to the extent it is felt appropriate.


            Let us now turn our attention, and offer an answer, to the question posed by the heading to this chapter, “Who is a Jew?” In this connection, the “Guidelines for Jewish Affirmation” proposed in 1983 by the Committee on Jewish Affirmation of the Central Conference of American Rabbis (Reform), merits our attention and thoughtful consideration.

In confirmation of a long-standing practice within American Reform Judaism, the Central Conference of American Rabbis (CCAR) adopted this resolution on the status of children of interfaith marriages.  Commonly called "Patrilineal Descent," the operative part of the resolution stated:

            "The Central Conference of American Rabbis declares that the child of one Jewish parent is under the presumption of Jewish descent.  This presumption of Jewish status of the offspring of any mixed marriage* is to be established through the appropriate and timely public and formal acts of identification with the Jewish faith and people.  The performance of these mitzvot serves to commit those who participate in them, both parent and child, to Jewish life.”

(*an interfaith marriage that we in this book refer to as an Intermarriage, that is, an in marriage, because the home the family will set up is to be a Jewish one.)


“1.       It shall be the local rabbi who shall ultimately decide whether or not sufficient "timely public and formal acts” have occurred to identify the child of a mixed marriage as Jewish.

“2.       Parents should be encouraged to formally identify with the Jewish community through synagogue affiliation.  Wherever possible, children of mixed marriage will be reared as Jews from birth and will be entered into the Covenant through a brit milah or baby naming ceremony and will receive a Jewish education in an established religious school setting through at least bar or bat mitzvah.

“3.       The public participation in a bar or bat mitzvah service will establish the child's Jewish identity. Recognizing that a child's Jewish identity will have been established through bar or bat mitzvah, we nonetheless encourage him or her to continue his or her Jewish education through Confirmation as is the case with all our students.

“4.       Where a family determines later during their child's childhood to establish his or her Jewish identity, the child should be enrolled in an established program of Jewish religious education in accordance with the requirements of the congregation in whose school the child is enrolled. In cases where a bar or bat mitzvah follows this level of Jewish education and participation in the Jewish community, no further ceremony other than the bar or bat mitzvah shall be required.

“5.       Should the child of a mixed marriage qualify to become a bar or bat mitzvah after fewer than five years of Jewish education and according to local community standards, we call upon the members of the CCAR  to respect the decisions of rabbinic colleagues in considering the bar or bat mitzvah to suffice to establish that child's identity.

“6.       For those children of mixed marriages who decide to establish their Jewish identity [i.e. after passing the age of bar/bat mitzvah], but are beyond the traditional age of bar and bat mitzvah, a course of study shall be provided leading toward that person's candidacy for conversion to Judaism.  The CCAR's Conversion Guidelines shall apply in these cases.

“7.       The Committee suggests that individual members of the CCAR be asked to endorse these guidelines on a list of rabbis to be posted on the members-only portion of the CCAR's Web site, to be used for the confidential reference of CCAR members.

“8.       In all respects, it is understood that all decisions as to Jewish identity will be applied in a fully egalitarian manner.”

          Hence these guidelines make it clear that all children raised as Jews (most of whom would have celebrated becoming a bar/bat mitzvah) are to be considered in all respects as fully Jewish.


            I think of Jewish Identity as an edifice or mansion of great splendor, a homestead designed for the ages, interiors bathed by light, and overflowing in an abundance of richness of content gathered and assembled over many centuries. An overused and rather hackneyed image to be sure but the idea of a mansion still works very nicely for our purposes! Other images and metaphors come to mind that should also prove useful and they will be invoked when appropriate and referenced as we proceed. In accordance with this imagery, the mansion of Jewish identity I have in mind does not resemble a tall skyscraper or an enormous ziggurat. It is rather a habitation, a dwelling-place, which rests upon four supporting columns or pillars. Functioning like stanchions or flying buttresses, these upright stabilizing structures consisting of base, shaft and capital, are integral to the mansion’s stately architecture and its sound, proven, engineering.

The image of a mansion works particularly well because it is evident that such a large palatial construction - an edifice, perhaps an ancestral home or manor-house with atriums, libraries, accommodations providing living quarters and shelter and the rest- can be strengthened by actions shoring up its framework and by behavioral strategies upholding its fabrication. An edifice can also be impaired and weakened by disregard and neglect. Remove one of the four columns and the building totters and sways. It cannot long hold up. It may not fall at once but missing a column, a structure cannot long stand or endure. Remove two supporting pillars and the building crumbles at once.

On the other hand, a building’s pillars can be restored and reinforced even after serious oversight and inattention. For some nominally Jewish homes the pillars have been weakened by indifference and need reinforcement but the building stands - the columns hold. They may yet be solidified and restored. Until the day that reconstruction begins, these may be homes-in-which-Jews-reside but they are not yet Jewish homes. Often the impetus of marriage and beginning a new family induce a couple to provide the hardening substances and to apply the motivational mortar necessary to firm up the pillars of their own particular mansion of Jewish identity and commitment.

            Typically, because Judaism is so much a home-based religion, celebrating festivals and rites of passage with family members, an unmarried Jewish person living alone would not likely be “acting very Jewishly."  Alone, a Jew behaves differently than when with others - not out of hypocrisy but out of a sense that Jewish practices and festival observances are to be shared experiences.  The family is fixed at the core; without family and loved ones around, many Jews do not practice Judaism quite as diligently (if at all) compared to the same individuals once married with children.

The Jewish sense of responsibility begins to register and Jewish life and behavior begin to take on an important, even transcendent, dimension - often thought of as an aspect of historic continuity - when children are being raised. The pillars supporting and upholding the Mansion of Jewish Identity begin to be cared for, attended to, strengthened and cherished in a home where children are being brought up to affirm their Jewish heritage.

The Four Pillars of Jewish Identity may be seen as the basics, the fundaments that inform the self-perception of a Jew. If the reader will come away from this presentation with an understanding and appreciation of these four sub-structural component elements that establish and set bounds to the who-is-a-Jew issue, an essential objective for writing this book will have been realized. These Four Pillars are 1) Lineality and Conversion, 2) Self-Identification, 3) the Mitzvah System and 4) Torah/Judaism. These are now to be defined, explained and illustrated.

1)      Lineality (descent, lineage, genealogy) and conversion. In the first book of the bible, Genesis, both nature, that is, biological descent, and nurture, meaning an upbringing characterized by living in accordance with, and abiding by, established community norms and procedures, Torah study and ritualized life cycle ceremonies, may authentically be called upon to open the portals of the Mansion of Jewish identity. In the twenty-first millennium, either parent may confer Jewish identity “naturally,” by descent, providing the other three supporting columns are also in place.   

        Early in Jewish history as the bible records, only the male transmitted membership in the people; then for centuries the Jewish mother solely conveyed lineality -- identity by her line of descent. Today, according to Reform Judaism, identity is conveyed by either parent. But lineality is not enough: one is identified as Jewish not merely by Jewish descent but by being raised as a Jew and by living as a Jew. For the transmission and establishment of Jewish identity, all four pillars must be arranged as firmly as possible in their positions.

     In this book, the terms patrilineality, co-lineality, and equal-lineality are employed interchangeably since many rabbis use these several designations from their pulpits and in their writings. These terms should be understood to mean that either mother or father transmits Jewish identity -the Jewish line of descent - if, as parents, they together decide to establish a Jewish home and raise Jewish children.

            In truth, it is not so much that parents pass on Jewish identity to their child as that the child’s Jewish upbringing and willful self-identification transmit identity to parents who raise the child in the religious/cultural households they bring to pass. Also, raising a Christian or Muslim child accomplishes the same thing – even if not precisely so – that is, reconfiguring all members of a household by the religious upbringing of the children.

            This means for all intents and purposes you are whatever you raise your kids to be, whether Jewish, Christian, Muslim, another religion, none-of-the-above - Eschewish, Chewish or totally confused and conflicted. The process whereby a child raised as a Jew conveys the status of the Settled Sojourner to parents regardless of their own religions of birth, has been referred to in these chapters as Retrojected Identity and Ascending Lineage (Lineality). Convergence as well as conversion may serve to unite a family in a Jewish household. These classifications will be examined in considerable detail in separate chapters of this book.

            Although willful Jewish self-declaration will obviously not be present for an unconverted parent raising Jewish children, nevertheless the parent, because of what the upbringing of a Jewish child entails, is very much like a Jewish parent - or more precisely, takes on the standing of a Settled Sojourner.  The importance of the distinctions among non-Jews, Gentiles and Settled Sojourners will be developed in the pages that follow. 

            What must be underscored is that parents decide on the kind of household they wish to establish as well as its character guidance, its moral health and religious content.  In this way, by the household they constitute and conduct, and especially by how they raise their children, they create or recreate their own religious identity, if any.

            In this book, I will be making the case for acknowledging as a supporting anchor to the lineality column (one of the four pillars upholding the Mansion of Jewish Identity), the reality of having status conveyed from child to parent in reverse or ascending order of lineage - retro-directionally. 

      Experience has shown time and again that raising Jewish children transforms, reconfigures or "converts" a non Jewish parent to a ger toshav – variously translated as a Settled Sojourner or an extension of the folk. “Not precisely a Jew but close enough,” as the wife, referring to her husband of over 20 years with whom she raised their Jewish children, observed. Nature, determined by biology, and nurture, determined by acculturation, convey identity. Conversion to Judaism may be thought of as a variation on the theme of nurture in that Jewish identity, although taken on by a brief ritual, enlarges and deepens over time and presupposes instruction and practical on-going experiences in a distinct lifestyle. Conversion will be more fully discussed in the chapter on Conversion and Convergence.

2) Willful Self-Identification. What we are pointing out here is that the self-portrayal, self-referral and self-designation of the members of a household (made evident by the practices of its constituents), determine the religious identity of those who reside there.

          “Willful” is understood as nearly synonymous with “prideful” in the sense that in our lifetime every Jew is a Jew by choice. No one is locked into a spiritual home.  Willful means prideful also in the sense of a deeply felt consciousness of being a member of a numerically small people which has contributed greatly to western civilization and has brought forth so many influential, creative and important men and women who have made life better for us all. Willful self-identification also serves to exclude whoever excludes themselves.

                        Former Secretary of State Madeline Albright may have been born of Jewish parents but she identifies herself as a Christian, not as a Jew. Absent Jewish self- declaration she is not a Jew. She is rather a Christian woman with Jewish ancestry. A nun with a Jewish mother – such as Edith Stein, now a candidate for sainthood - is also not Jewish. Orthodox Judaism assuredly takes exception and looks to the mother alone as the parent that conveys Jewish identity regardless of self-identification.  But in the century just begun, religious identity will be increasingly a question of election, volition, free choice and free-will decisions.

            Willful self-identification: if a child is confused, we might extend or expand our definitions for an appropriate amount of time, but the affirmation of Jewish identity -- along with the other three requirements -- is absolute. No one who is merely born of a Jewish mother but does not identify as a Jew will be considered Jewish. Jewish self-identification without the other requirements including professing Judaism (Torah) and observing commandments (mitzvot) is also inadequate. But the point is, today you need more than a Jewish parent to be thought of as a Jew by most progressive congregations and their rabbis– especially in Reform and other non-Orthodox synagogues.

3) The Mitzvah System or Formal Acts of public - and private - Jewish commitment: all life-cycle events are celebrated Jewishly -- beginning with a brit/covenant and naming ceremonies, followed by Consecration (signalizing the time of a child’s enrollment in religious school to acquire a Jewish education), bar and bat mitzvah celebrations, Confirmation, marriages, bringing children into the world and end-of-life observances and procedures. Taken together, these events mark the milestones of a Jewish lifetime. They are analogous, parallel and as important as the commandments of observing the festivals and Holy days of the Jewish calendar year. The commandments are understood as affirming Jewish identity from birth to death. And as a youngster put it at her bat mitzvah celebration, “the more we participate in Jewish doing, the stronger becomes our Jewish being.”

            Alongside the life cycle events and the circuit of the festivals of the Jewish year are the commandments of living by the many other practices and observances of the mitzvah system. They provide direction and guidance on which goals to pursue, which values to live by and how to fulfill the moral and ethical commitments that enhance the very meaning of life. In short, mitzvot also serve to promote the living of the virtues.

       It is useful to think of the mitzvah system in several broad categories. One class of commandments commemorates the life cycle events, birth through death. The system offers instruction and identity reinforcement at each crucial time of transition in a person’s life and at each intersection and milestone. I don’t think of these life-cycle events as a cycle at all. After all, they don't really cycle, circle, recur or return. They are, rather, uncurved and linear, a straight-forward series, like a train going from station to station marking the way through life: conception, pregnancy, birth, brit, Consecration, bar and bat mitzvah, Confirmation, wedding/marriage, aging, parenthood, grandparenthood, death and mourning.

            The tradition has the capacity to root us to a way of life as we traverse from station to station until the end of the line. These acts, coupled with the observances of the festivals of the Jewish year and many other practices (mitzvot), taken together, are private and public acts of Jewish commitment recognized by the Jewish community as indications of Jewish behaving and belonging.

            When a family identifies itself as Jewish but does not “practice” the mitzvot (disregarding all holidays, festivals and life-cycle events), Jewish identity rests on unstable ground.  The Mansion of Jewish identity may nevertheless hold up for a while even as the building wobbles erratically from side to side, lacking one of its columns or one of its foundation stones, but it is likely soon to tumble.

            There are, however, no minimum requirements or a certain number of mitzvot below which you forfeit Jewish identity. Because the mitzvah system casts so wide a net, it snags even the minimalists who do no more than dine together as a family on Passover - however superficial and inadequate by all standards that may be.  But, for all Jews - not only for the many passionate advocates of intensive Jewish living - brit, Consecration, bar/bat mitzvah, Confirmation, weddings, births, death and mourning practices provide the signposts along the road of a Jewish person’s spiritual growth and “cultural identification.”

           A spreadsheet catalogue of ritual as differentiated from ethical commandments/mitzvot along with a brief explanation of their meaning and relative importance is appended for reference in the back of this book.

4) Torah (Judaism): The profession of Judaism or Torah as one's heritage and source of one’s values and convictions. In a certain sense: If the mitzvah is the practice, Torah is the theory. Judaism's world-view is Torah. This means that of all the “isms” arrayed for us in this world, the first port of call in matters of values, laws, principles and practices - indeed for all important, “religious” matters - will be the Torah. The term Torah, meaning "teaching," refers variously, and in diverse contexts, to the scroll of the five books of Moses, that is, the first five books of the bible. In other usages, Torah refers to the entire scripture as well as Talmudic laws, codes, commentaries and subsequent teachings and rulings by generations of rabbis, right up to the present day. Historically a rabbi is foremost a student and teacher of Torah/Judaism/Jewish law/Jewish values.

            For the Jewish family, when the need arises for consulting an “ism,” that “ism” will be Judaism. Not that other "isms," ideologies and religions are to be ignored. There are after all multiple modes of gaining knowledge, spiritual awareness and enlightenment. But Judaism has an a priori claim on a Jew's life. “Therefore, first get to know and understand your own heritage,” say its Torah/Judaism teachers, “before you turn to another source of wisdom and erudition just as you turn to your own parents first before you’d turn to parents of others.”

            Jewish commitment involves Torah study and practice. It is expressed not in belief or faith but in the teaching - “go, learn Torah,” that is, study and practice. The message is that other people have their wisdom.  We have ours, Torah. Go there first. When you wish to establish a perspective on a grave or important matter, before seeking direction and recommendation from other disciplines and authorities regarding a course of action, first determine and take into account what Judaism teaches.  That is your inheritance.

            As has been pointed out, it is useful to think of Torah-Judaism as theory and the mitzvah system as practice. An oversimplification to be sure. After all, each overlaps the other and each is also subsumed within the other.  Torah itself is a mitzvah; it entails learning and requires performance. Since the doing part is a mitzvah, and learning itself is an action, Torah study is a commandment – among the most important commandments. Torah and mitzvot, therefore, cannot really be disconnected and disentangled from each other as theory and practice. But we may identify the theory of life commanding the commandments (mitzvot) as Torah. The reasoning behind the practice of mitzvot is also Torah. The practice of mitzvot fulfills and extends Torah, in some respects like the Oral law clarifies and extends the Written law or like Judaism’s call of both mystery and command (Leo Baeck). These may be seen as representing the fullness of the Jewish way of life, the culture of Judaism.

            In this respect Torah is an -ism. For a Jew, it is the first -ism to consult when thorny problems arise. A Jew asks, what does the accumulated wisdom of Judaism – the written and the oral Torah - have to teach on the subject, the issue, the dilemma, and on the conflicting values we encounter in our lives day by day? [1]. The question we ask before all others is “what does Judaism/Torah have to say?”

            It may be posed as follows: “As you, the reader, shape your views on any subject of importance, you will be encouraged to ask yourself: What are the Jewish teachings on the subject?” You will ask this on the issues of abortion, living wage, gender matters, the environment, discrimination, welfare, affirmative action, stem cell research, church and state separations, how to behave as a member of a community and all matters of significance to you.

        You will want to inquire as to what the tradition teaches as well as why and what current reasoning is employed to support the views offered. You will not stop there. You will also want to know what are presented as the defeated positions, the negative voices and the views that Judaism rejects – and why.  Included are the questions, “Who is a Jew?” and “What are the requirements for Jewish Identity?” “What may be the role of Gentiles and Settled Sojourners in a synagogue?” Why do rabbis of the Reform movement  officiate at gay marriages for Jewish same sex couples? While a great many “isms” have power and substance, for anyone electing to reside within the mansion of Jewish Identity, Torah – Judaism – should be elevated in consciousness and established  in significance as your first port of call.

      Much more will be said about the four columns of the Jewish Mansion throughout the chapters that follow. They are, after all, the essentials of Jewish identity. They establish criteria for Who is a Jew.


A Friendly Copyright Notice
© 2007 Reeve Robert Brenner All rights reserved

Even though most copyright notices say all kinds of mean things about not reproducing the book in any form, I not only wouldn't mind if you copy parts of this book, I would be thrilled if you do. All I ask is that you tell people where this material came from and who is the author. If you want copies of the entire book, it's easier and probably cheaper to buy nice pretty printed originals from our website. Thanks!